Thursday, December 12, 2019

epics of our world

                               EPICS OF OUR WORLD   


                          The history of the world is commonly understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present. In terms such as world religion, world language, world government, and world war, the term world suggests an international or intercontinental scope without necessarily implying participation of every part of the world.

        The world population is the sum of all human populations at any time; similarly, the world economy is the sum of the economies of all societies or countries, especially in the context of globalization. Terms such as "world championship", "gross world product", and "world flags" imply the sum or combination of all sovereign states.


Contents
1 Etymology and usage
2 Philosophy
2.1 Parmenides
2.2 Plato
2.3 Hegel           
2.4   Schopenhauer
2.5 Wittgenstein
2.6 Heidegger                                                                                    2.7   Freud
2.8 Other
3 Religion and mythology
3.1 Buddhism
3.2 Christianity
3.2.1 Eastern Christianity
3.2.2 Orbis Catholicus
3.3 Islam
3.4 Hinduism


1.Etymology and usages:

                                      The English word world comes from the Old English weorold (-uld), weorld, worold (-uld, -eld), a compound of wer "man" and eld "age," which thus means roughly "Age of Man." The Old English is a reflex of the Common Germanic *wira-alđiz, also reflected in Old Saxon werold, Old Dutch werilt, Old High German weralt, Old Frisian warld and Old Norse verǫld (whence the Icelandic veröld).

The corresponding word in Latin is mundanes, literally "clean, elegant", itself a loan translation of Greek cosmos "orderly arrangement." While the Germanic word thus reflects a mythological notion of a "domain of Man" (compare Midgard), presumably as opposed to the divine sphere on the one hand and the chthonic sphere of the underworld on the other, the Greco-Latin term expresses a notion of creation as an act of establishing order out of chaos.

"World" distinguishes the entire planet or population from any particular country or region: world affairs pertain not just to one place but to the whole world, and world history is a field of history that examines events from a global (rather than a national or a regional) perspective. Earth, on the other hand, refers to the planet as a physical entity, and distinguishes it from other planets and physical objects.

"World" was also classically used to mean the material universe, or the cosmos: "The worlde is an apte frame of heauen and earthe, and all other naturall thinges contained in them." The earth was often described as "the center of the world".

The term can also be used attributively, to mean "global", or "relating to the whole world", forming usages such as world community or world canonical texts.

By extension, a world may refer to any planet or heavenly body, especially when it is thought of as inhabited, especially in the context of science fiction or futurology.

World, in its original sense, when qualified, can also refer to a particular domain of human experience.

The world of work describes paid work and the pursuit of a career, in all its social aspects, to distinguish it from home life and academic study.
The fashion world describes the environment of the designers, fashion houses and consumers that make up the fashion industry.
historically, the New World vs. the Old World, referring to the parts of the world colonized in the wake of the age of discovery. Now mostly used in zoology and botany, as in New World monkey.

2.Philosophy:

The Garden of Earthly Delights triptych by Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1503) shows the "garden" of mundane pleasures flanked by Paradise and Hell. The exterior panel shows the world before the appearance of humanity, depicted as a disc enclosed in a sphere.
In philosophy, the term world has several possible meanings. In some contexts, it refers to everything that makes up reality or the physical universe. In others, it can mean have a specific ontological sense (see world disclosure). While clarifying the concept of world has arguably always been among the basic tasks of Western philosophy, this theme appears to have been raised explicitly only at the start of the twentieth century and has been the subject of continuous debate. The question of what the world is has by no means been settled.

2.1.Parmenides:

The traditional interpretation of Parmenides' work is that he argued that the everyday perception of reality of the physical world (as described in doxa) is mistaken, and that the reality of the world is 'One Being' (as described in aletheia): an unchanging, ungenerated, indestructible whole.

2.2.Plato:

In his Allegory of the Cave, Plato distinguishes between forms and ideas and imagines two distinct worlds: the sensible world and the intelligible world.

2.3.Hegel:

In Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's philosophy of history, the expression Weltgeschichte ist Weltgericht (World History is a tribunal that judges the World) is used to assert the view that History is what judges men, their actions and their opinions. Science is born from the desire to transform the World in relation to Man; its final end is technical application.

2.4.Schopenhauer:

The World as Will and Representation is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer saw the human will as our one window to the world behind the representation; the Kantian thing-in-itself. He believed, therefore, that we could gain knowledge about the thing-in-itself, something Kant said was impossible, since the rest of the relationship between representation and thing-in-itself could be understood by analogy to the relationship between human will and human body.

2.5.Wittgenstein:

Two definitions that were both put forward in the 1920s, however, suggest the range of available opinion. "The world is everything that is the case," wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein in his influential Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, first published in 1921.[8] This definition would serve as the basis of logical positivism, with its assumption that there is exactly one world, consisting of the totality of facts, regardless of the interpretations that individual people may make of them.

2.6.Heidegger:

Martin Heidegger, meanwhile, argued that "the surrounding world is different for each of us, and notwithstanding that we move about in a common world".The world, for Heidegger, was that into which we are always already "thrown" and with which we, as beings-in-the-world, must come to terms. His conception of "world disclosure" was most notably elaborated in his 1927 work Being and Time.

2.7.Freud:

In response, Sigmund Freud proposed that we do not move about in a common world, but a common thought process. He believed that all the actions of a person are motivated by one thing: lust. This led to numerous theories about reactionary consciousness.

2.8.Other:

Some philosophers, often inspired by David Lewis, argue that metaphysical concepts such as possibility, probability, and necessity are best analyzed by comparing the world to a range of possible worlds; a view commonly known as modal realism.

3.Religion and mythology:

Yggdrasil, a modern attempt to reconstruct the Norse world tree which connects the heavens, the world, and the underworld.
Mythological cosmologies often depict the world as centered on an axis mundi and delimited by a boundary such as a world ocean, a world serpent or similar. In some religions, worldliness (also called carnality) is that which relates to this world as opposed to other worlds or realms.

3.1.Buddhism:

In Buddhism, the world means society, as distinct from the monastery. It refers to the material world, and to worldly gain such as wealth, reputation, jobs, and war. The spiritual world would be the path to enlightenment, and changes would be sought in what we could call the psychological realm.

3.2.Christianity:

In Christianity, the term often connotes the concept of the fallen and corrupt world order of human society, in contrast to the World to Come. The world is frequently cited alongside the flesh and the Devil as a source of temptation that Christians should flee. Monks speak of striving to be "in this world, but not of this world"—as Jesus said—and the term "worldhood" has been distinguished from "monkhood", the former being the status of merchants, princes, and others who deal with "worldly" things.

This view is clearly expressed by king Alfred the Great of England (d. 899) in his famous Preface to the Cura Pastoralis:

Therefore I command you to do as I believe you are willing to do, that you free yourself from worldly affairs (Old English: woruldðinga) as often as you can, so that wherever you can establish that wisdom that God gave you, you establish it. Consider what punishments befell us in this world when we neither loved wisdom at all ourselves, nor transmitted it to other men; we had the name alone that we were Christians, and very few had the practices.

Although Hebrew and Greek words meaning "world" are used in Scripture with the normal variety of senses, many examples of its use in this particular sense can be found in the teachings of Jesus according to the Gospel of John, e.g. 7:7, 8:23, 12:25, 14:17, 15:18-19, 17:6-25, 18:36. In contrast, a relatively newer concept is Catholic imagination.

Contemptus mundi is the name given to the recognition that the world, in all its vanity, is nothing more than a futile attempt to hide from God by stifling our desire for the good and the holy. This view has been criticized as a "pastoral of fear" by modern historian Jean Delumeau.

During the Second Vatican Council, there was a novel attempt to develop a positive theological view of the World, which is illustrated by the pastoral optimism of the constitutions Gaudium et spes, Lumen gentium, Unitatis redintegratio and Dignitatis humanae.

3.2.1.Eastern Christianity:
In Eastern Christian monasticism or asceticism, the world of mankind is driven by passions. Therefore, the passions of the World are simply called "the world". Each of these passions are a link to the world of mankind or order of human society. Each of these passions must be overcome in order for a person to receive salvation (theosis). The process of theosis is a personal relationship with God. This understanding is taught within the works of ascetics like Evagrius Ponticus, and the most seminal ascetic works read most widely by Eastern Christians, the Philokalia and the Ladder of Divine Ascent (the works of Evagrius and John Climacus are also contained within the Philokalia). At the highest level of world transcendence is hesychasm which culminates into the Vision of God.

3.2.2.Orbis Catholicus:
Orbis Catholicus is a Latin phrase meaning Catholic world, per the expression Urbi et Orbi, and refers to that area of Christendom under papal supremacy. It is somewhat similar to the phrases secular world, Jewish world and Islamic world.

3.3.Islam:

Main article: Dunya
Dunya derives from the root word "dana" that means to bring near. In that sense, "dunya" is "what is brought near".

3.4.Hinduism:

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent. It includes a number of Indian religious traditions with a loose sense of interconnection, as different from Jainism and Buddhism, and (since medieval and modern times) Islam and Christianity. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in

                                    Maharahtra

History of maharashtra:

                    Maharashtra was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State, Berar and Vidarbha, and the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra (in present-day Gujarat) by the States Reorganisation Act. It has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, Mumbai, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as the 'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. Nashik is known as the 'Wine Capital of India' as it has the largest number of wineries and vineyards in the country.

The Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state. The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near the border between Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanised state of India.[13][14] Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates, Mughals and Marathas, and the British. Ruins, monuments, tombs, forts, and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state. They include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ajanta and Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Shivaji.

Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and also the most industrialized state in India.The state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product (GDP).The economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹24.11 lakh crore (US$350 billion) in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹176,000 (US$2,500).Maharashtra has the ninth highest ranking among Indian states in human development index.


Geography and climate:


                     Maharashtra occupies the western and central part of the country and has a long coastline stretching 720 kilometres along the Arabian Sea. One of the more prominent physical features of Maharashtra is the Deccan plateau, which is separated from the Konkan coastline by 'Ghats'. The Ghats are a succession of steep hills, periodically bisected by narrow roads. Most of the famous hill stations of the state are at the Ghats. The Western Ghats (or the Sahyadri Mountain range) provide a physical backbone to the state on the west, while the Satpura Hills along the north and Bhamragad-Chiroli-Gaikhuri ranges on the east serve as its natural borders.[58] The state is surrounded by Gujarat to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Telangana to the south east, Karnataka to the south and Goa to the south west.[59]

Maharashtra is the third largest state by area in India.The Western Ghats better known as Sahyadri, are a hilly range running parallel to the coast, at an average elevation of 1,200 metres (4,000 ft).Kalsubai, a peak in the Sahyadris, near Nashik city is the highest elevated point in Maharashtra. To the west of these hills lie the Konkan coastal plains, 50–80 kilometres in width. To the east of the Ghats lies the flat Deccan Plateau. Forests comprise 17% of the total area of the state.A majority of the forests are in the eastern and Sahyadri regions of the state. The main rivers of the state are Krishna, Bhima, Godavari, Tapi-Purna and Wardha-Wainganga.[56][62] Since the central parts of the state receives low rainfall, most of the rivers in the region have multiple dams. Maharashtra has around 1821 notable large dams.

Maharashtra is divided into five geographic regions. Konkan is the western coastal region, between the Western Ghats and the sea.Kandesh is the north-western region lying in the valley of the Tapti River.Nashik, Jalgaon, Dhule and Bhusawal are the major cities of this region. Desh is in the centre of the state.Marathwada, which was a part of the princely state of Hyderabad until 1956, is located in the southeastern part of the state.Aurangabad and Nanded are the main cities of the region. Vidarbha is the easternmost region of the state, formerly part of the Central Provinces and Berar. Nagpur, where the winter session of the state assembly is held, Akola, Amravati and Chandrapur are the main cities in the region.Sahyadri range, with an elevation of 1,000 meters, is known for its crowning plateaus.Lying between the Arabian Sea and the Sahyadri Range, Konkan is narrow coastal lowland, just 50 km wide and with an elevation below 200 meters.The third important region is the Satpura hills along the northern border, and the Bhamragad-Chiroli-Gaikhuri ranges on the eastern border, which form physical barriers preventing easy movement.These ranges also serve as natural limits to the state.

Climate:

Maharashtra has a typical monsoon climate, with hot, rainy, cold weather seasons and dry summers. However, dew, frost and hail also occur sometimes, depending upon the seasonal weather. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May and the monsoon season between June and September.Summers (March, April and May) are extremely hot, the temperature rises from 22 °C to as high as 43 °C during the summer. The rainfall starts normally in the first week of June. July is the wettest month in Maharashtra, while August also gets substantial rain. The rainy season starts its retreat with the coming of September to the state. Rainfall in Maharashtra differs from region to region. Thane, Raigad, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg districts, receive heavy rains of an average of 200 centimetres annually. But the districts of Nashik, Pune, Ahmednagar, Dhule, Jalgaon, Satara, Sangli, Solapur and parts of Kolhapur less than 50 centimetres. Rainfall is particularly high in areas adjacent to the Sahyadri mountains such as coastal Konkan on the west and foothills of the mountain range on the eastern side. Central Maharashtra receives less rainfall. However, under the influence of the Bay of Bengal, eastern Vidarbha receives good rainfall in July, August and September.In winter Cool dry spell, with clear skies gentle breeze and pleasant weather prevails from November to February. But the eastern part of Maharashtra sometimes receives some rainfall. Temperature raise from 12 °C to 34 °C during this season.

Biodiversity
            Flora of Maharashtra is heterogeneous in composition. In 2012 the recorded thick forest area in the state was 61,939 km2 (23,915 sq mi) which was about 20.13% of the state's geographical area.These There are three main Public Forestry Institutions (PFIs) in the Maharashtra state: the Maharashtra Forest Department (MFD), the Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra (FDCM) and the Directorate of Social Forestry (SFD).The Maharashtra State Biodiversity Board, constituted by the Government of Maharashtra in January 2012 under the Biological Diversity Act, 2002, is the nodal body for conservation of biodiversity within and outside forest areas in the State.

According to the Champion and Seth classification, Maharashtra has five types of forests:

Southern Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forests:
                                                       These are found in the western ghats at height of 400–1000 meters.Some of the species of trees found in this type of forests are Anjani, Hirda, Kinjal, and Mango.

Southern Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests:     
                                                      Two main sub-types occur under this group.
 i) Moist Teak bearing Forests:These forests are found in Melghat,other districts in Vidarbha and Thane district.Commercially important Teak, Shishum and bamboo are found here.
 ii) Moist Mixed deciduous Forests:In addition to ever green Teak, some of the other tree species found in this type of forests include Jambul, Ain, and Shisam.

Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
                                                      Forests of this type occupy a major part of the state.Two types of occur under this group.
 i) Dry Teak Bearing Forests and
ii) Moist Mixed deciduous Forests

Southern Tropical Thorn Forests:
                                                   These are found in the low rainfall regions of Marathwada, Vidarbha, Khandesh and Western Maharashtra.At present, these forests are heavily degraded. Babul, Bor, and Palas are some of the tree species found here.

Littoral and Swamp Forests:
                                     These are mainly found in the Creeks of Sindhudurg and Thane districts of the coastal Konkan region.These forests are important for the protection of coastal environment
In addition to the above forest types, Maharashtra harbours significant mangrove, coastal and marine biodiversity, with 304 km2 of area under mangrove cover as per the India State of Forest Report (ISFR) of the Forest survey India. Some of the forest areas have been converted into wildlife reserves, thus preserving their biodiversity.Western ghats of Maharashtra are included in the 34 global Biodiversity hotspots owing to its extraordinarily rich biodiversity. The biodiversity includes more than five hundred species of birds.Similarly a study in the Amravati region found 171 species of birds. Both regions include resident as well as migrant species.The state has three game reserves, as well as several national parks and bird sanctuaries. The six tiger reserves located in the state cover a total area of 9133 km2. Wildlife sanctuaries in the state include Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary, Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary, Bor Wildlife Sanctuary, Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandoli National Park, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary, Navegoan National Park and Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary.The most common animal species present in the state are tiger, leopard, gaur, sloth bear, sambar, four-horned antelope, blue bull, chital, barking deer, mouse deer, small Indian civet, golden jackal, jungle cat, striped hyena, and hare.Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras and kraits.The national parks of Maharashtra possess a variety of plant species that include jamun, palas, shisam, neem, teak, dhawada, kalam, ain, bija, shirish, mango, acacia, awala, kadamba, moha, terminalia, hedu and ficus.


Maharashtra consists of six administrative divisions:

Amravati
Aurangabad
Konkan
Nagpur
Nashik
Pune

The state's six divisions are further divided into 36 districts, 109 sub-divisions and 357 talukas.Maharashtra's top five districts by population, as ranked by the 2011 Census, are listed in the following table.

Each district is governed by a district collector or district magistrate, appointed either by the Indian Administrative Service or the Maharashtra Civil Service.Districts are subdivided into sub-divisions (Taluka) governed by sub-divisional magistrates, and again into blocks.A block consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.Talukas are intermediate level panchayat between the Zilla Parishad (district councils) at the district level and gram panchayat (village councils) at the lower level.


MUMBAI:

The name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess (kuladevata) Mumbadevi of the native Koli community—and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, which is the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, and according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad (Gujarat), where she is still worshipped.However, other sources disagree that Mumbai's name was derived from the goddess Mumba.


The Mumba Devi Temple, from whom the city of Mumbai may derive its name
The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used.In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India").This name possibly originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese.In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.

Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), Boon Bay (1690),and Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay.Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi (1762) referred to the city as Manbai.

The French traveller Louis Rousselet, who visited in 1863 and 1868, states in his book L’Inde des Rajahs, which was first published in 1877: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or (French: "bonne bai", English: "good bay"), not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, and that she still..., possesses a temple".

By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambai in Hindi.The Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. This came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, and mirrored similar name changes across the country and particularly in Maharashtra.According to Slate magazine, "they argued that 'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of 'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule."Slate also said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region."While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions,ention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature.

People from Mumbai
A resident of Mumbai is called Mumbaikar in Marathi, in which the suffix kar means a resident of. The term had been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai.Older terms such as Bombayite are also in use.



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